Here some interesting articles about what in Italy is called “La Fuga dei Cervelli” (Brains’ Escape). No, this is not the title of a new SF book, but a long standing phenomenon deeply affecting people with high educational level in Italy.

Personally I don’t consider it a bad thing moving myself to an other country for living and work, and this is what I’m ready to do…
I think that our generation has the great oppoturnity of moving in other countries with a greater easiness than in the past, so we mustn’t miss it. But in Italy seems that the most of people look at youth moving in other countries for living as a sad thing and partially they are right. The sadness come from the fact Italy can’t (want not?) provide the right opportunities to young generations maybe because of lack of trust maybe because of fear of the change…

to be continued…

What business is it of yours where I'm from, f r i e n d o ?

Kindness in words creates confidence.
Kindness in thinking creates profoundness.
Kindness in giving creates love. – Lao Tzu

I read the article written by Manuel Castels a Spanish sociologist, speaking about the Spain Universities and making some social considerations on the actual role of the University in the modern era and how it should be in a modern Country.
The article has been taken from the site of the “Internazionale” a popular Italian weekly magazine reporting articles taken from foreign journals and magazines.

Quantum effects$V(x)$ must show an appreciable relative variation over a distance of the order of a wavelength.

Square Potentials → discontinuities of the first kind.

Schrödinger equation$\psi''+(\epsilon - U)\psi = 0$

$\epsilon > U_i$ → linear combination of imaginary exponentials:

$Ae^{ik_ix}+ Be^{ik_ix}$

$\epsilon < U_i$ → linear combination of real exponentials:

$Fe^{\kappa_ix}+ Ge^{\kappa_ix}$

The parameters of these combinations are fixed by the condition of continuity of the wavefunction and of its first derivative at the points of discontinuity of the potential.

Eingenfunction → solution bounded everywhere (at both $x=-\infty$ and $x=+\infty$).

Energy $\epsilon$ lower than the potential over the entire interval ($-\infty$; $+\infty$) →No solutions

From D. Gatteschi, R. Sessoli, J. Villain book: Molecular Nanomagnets (2006)

The Spin Hamiltonian approach is widely used in various spectroscopies.

The Spin Hamiltonian approach eliminates all the orbital coordinates needed to describe the system and replaces them with spin coordinates, taking advantage of the symmetry properties of the system. An example of these approximations coming from the symmetry is the quencing of orbital angular momentum of the magnetic bricks.

The system with orbitally non-degenerate ground states are usually well treated with the Spin Hamiltonian approach.